Saturday, September 14, 2019

Borrowings Words Research Paper Essay

Introduction The theme of the research paper is â€Å"English borrowings†. This theme arouses my interest as it’s widely discussed in all scientific circles. New languages are born, some die out, and lots of them mix up with each other. These facts have a great influence on the humanity. Nowadays the language that influences Russian the most is English. English has become an international language and is used all over the world. More and more people, both youth and grown ups, use this words in their speech. These words are used in all sorts of activities: politics, fashion, trade, medicine, law, military, mass media, sports. The aim of my research paper is to investigate the borrowed words in different spheres of life and their usage in modern Russian language. The tasks of the research paper: * to give general information about the borrowed words; * to investigate the process and the way of borrowings; * to determine the importance of the borrowed words. The subject of my research paper is borrowings. Methods of investigation are: * the method of observation; * questionnaires; * magazine and TV programme analyzing; * interviewing. Practical significance of the results of investigation consists in the fact they can be used in teaching English for Belarusian and Russian students. We all agree that a language is the most important part of human communication. The main element of every language is speech. It consists of words and word combinations. Lots of words in Russian are borrowed from other languages. The knowledge of these words is essential as we meet them every day and everywhere. These words are usually not specific but are known to the most part of native speakers. Borrowings – are words and word combinations, adopted from one language to another according to its phonetic and grammatical rules. Borrowing – 1) (process) resorting to the word-stock of other languages for words to express new concepts, to further differentiate the existing concepts and to name new objects, etc.; 2) (result) a loan word, borrowed word – a word taken over from another language and modified in phonemic sh ape, spelling, paradigm or meaning according to the standards of the English language. The number of borrowings is different in each language. There are languages full of loan-words, such as Korean: it includes about 2/3 of Chinese lexical units. Others have a little number of loan-words: such as Russian, French and German. Nevertheless, there are languages – Czech, Chinese and Hungarian – which make an effort in order to avoid the input of foreign words and try to make up new words and expressions for a new concept by their own lexical units. But there is no language without any borrowings because nations can’t be separated from each other and communication – cultural, scientific and trade – can’t be synthetically stopped. There are different types of borrowings. In the most cases the necessity of adopting some word appears with the penetration of corresponding item or acquiring new notion. In this way the word â€Å"Ã' Ã ¿Ã'Æ'Ã'‚Ð ½Ã ¸Ã ºÃ¢â‚¬  – â€Å"spoutnik† in French and â€Å"sputnik† in English was borrowed by many languages from Russian after the launch of the first Soviet artificial sputnik of the Earth. The flow of borrowing foreign words into Russian language had especially increased in 90-s. It is connected with the inflexions in such spheres as politics, economy, culture and new concepts of morality. The extraordinary expansion of foreign lexica had been observed in this period. I Reasons for borrowings From the ancient times Belarusian nation came into cultural, trade, military and political relations with other states that certainly lead to the language borrowings. Within the process of usage the majority of them were exposed by the borrowing language influence. Step by step loan-words, assimilated (from Lat. â€Å"assimilare† – Ã'Æ'Ã' Ã ²Ã °Ã ¸Ã ²Ã °Ã'‚Ã'Å', Ã'Æ'Ð ¿Ã ¾Ã ´Ã ¾Ã ±Ã »Ã' Ã'‚Ã'Å') in borrowing language, had formed the layer of widespread words and by this time weren’t perceived as foreign anymore. In different epoch words from other languages penetrated into original Russian vocabulary. The borrowed words appeared mostly in such spheres as mass-media, advertising and IT, because they present the most update phenomena of our modern lifestyle. It became fashionable for nowadays to use borrowings which came from English into Russian. It is conditioned by the tendency of American society idealisation, where the social life level is very high. Also we can’t deny the speed of technical progress in English speaking countries. It is obvious that they have a great potential in almost every sphere of modern society. That’s why we need to borrow words in order to name new concepts. Day after day people rig their houses with the most modern and high-technological equipment. So in order to use such â€Å"house-helpers† people had to study the technological information including the appropriate terminology. So that such words as â€Å"Ã'‚Ð µÃ »Ã µÃ ²Ã ¸Ã ·Ã ¾Ã'€â€ , â€Å"Ð ¼Ã ¸Ã ºÃ' Ã µÃ'€â€  and many others came into our lives. The most demonstrative example is the word â€Å"Ð ºÃ ¾Ã ¼Ã ¿Ã'Å'Ã'ŽÃ'‚Ð µÃ'€â€ . Not so long ago this notion acquired the status of everyday usage word with the process of total computerization. We can hear this term almost everywhere and even from a little child. Almost in every newspaper we can see advertisements with such a text: â€Å"Ã'‚Ã'€Ð µÃ ±Ã'Æ'Ð µÃ'‚Ã' Ã'  Ã' Ã ¿Ã µÃ'†Ð ¸Ã °Ã »Ã ¸Ã' Ã'‚ Ã' Ã ¾ Ð ·Ã ½Ã °Ã ½Ã ¸Ã µÃ ¼ ПК†; and everyone understands that it means the knowledge of various computer programmes. The other reason and may be the most important is that English language nowadays serves as the language of international communication. May be we should wait a little and â€Å"Ð »Ã'ŽÐ ´Ã' Ã ºÃ °Ã'  Ã'€Ð µÃ'‡Ã'Å' Ð ² Ð ¾Ã ´Ã ¸Ã ½ Ã' Ã ·Ã'‹Ð º Ã' Ã ¾Ã »Ã'Å'Ð µÃ'‚Ã' Ã' Ã¢â‚¬  as Sergey Yesenin wrote in his poem. Many Russian scientists are very troubled with the tendency of English and American words penetration into Russian language. There are a lot of examples in the history when one language gradually absorbed the other one. But as for me I think that Russian language is very rich and it has a great potential to get rid of everything superfluous or unnecessary and it is one of the richest language of the world while including a layer of loan-words in its vocabulary. But in addition to the classical borrowings, which serve to identify new notions, there is a new tendency in Russian language – borrowing the words from English language, which alre ady exist and are used in everyday life. For example, it is very fashionable to say â€Å"Ã'…Ð °Ã ¸Ã'€â€  from English â€Å"hair† which means â€Å"Ð ²Ã ¾Ã »Ã ¾Ã' Ã'‹ Ð ¸Ã »Ã ¸ Ð ¿Ã'€Ð ¸Ã'‡Ð µÃ' Ã ºÃ °Ã¢â‚¬  or â€Å"Ã'„Ã' Ã ¹Ã' Ã¢â‚¬  from English â€Å"face† instead Russian â€Å"Ð »Ã ¸Ã'†Ð ¾Ã¢â‚¬ . It is clear that we can’t use such borrowings in the scientific speech or in literary works. Here we can talk about the process of stylistic distinction of the loan-words. Everything is changeable and language especially. The reason is that the language is the most sensitive phenomenon to the changes in the surrounding world: economics, politics and technological progress with its inventions. Only language can express our feelings, actions, thoughts and relations among people, events that occur with us. II Spheres of borrowings The joining of borrowings into Russian language increased especially in 90 years of XX century. The tendency of expansion foreign words could be observed in almost every sphere of life. It occupied the leading position in political sphere of the country getting accustomed with new concepts: president, inauguration, speaker, impeachment, electorate and others. Such words began to form the layer of new social and political vocabulary. At last time, the main source of linguistic stuff became contemporary mass media. While reading newspapers or watching TV every person is confronted with a great number of borrowed words. In this way, new concepts come into our life. The speed of foreign words’ penetration became faster within the development of mass media. It is necessary to stand for spheres of borrowing of English words such as: information technologies, a policy, the international relations and cooperation, business sphere, cultural interaction of the countries and the people, sports. The process of adoption of new words is determined by nations’ contacts which generate a necessity of new concepts and ideas nomination. Such words are usually the results of some nation’s innovation in any sphere of science or technics. They may also appear as a consecutive result of snobbery, fashion. Nevertheless, there are essential linguistic reasons: for instance, the necessity to express polysemantic Russian words by means of foreign word or to widen the expressive means of a language, etc. III Classification of borrowings Linguistic borrowing are words (morpheme or syntactic construction) and set expressions, moved from one language to another. The beginning of English borrowings in Russian language refers to the beginning of XVII century. Later by the middle of XIX century loan-words entered Russian to become its essential part. The word-stock of international vocabulary was being arisen. 1. Loan-word can be a synonym to the original one: For example: Ð ¤Ã °Ã ¹Ã'‚Ð µÃ'€ – Ð ±Ã ¾Ã µÃ'†; ÐÅ"Ð ¾Ã ½Ã ¸Ã'‚Ð ¾Ã'€Ð ¸Ã ½Ã ³ – Ð ½Ã °Ã ±Ã »Ã'ŽÐ ´Ã µÃ ½Ã ¸Ã µ; КÐ ¸Ã »Ã »Ã µÃ'€ – Ã'Æ'Ð ±Ã ¸Ã ¹Ã'†Ð °; ПÐ ¸Ã °Ã'€ – Ã' Ã ²Ã' Ã ·Ã ¸ Ã'  Ð ¾Ã ±Ã'‰Ð µÃ' Ã'‚Ð ²Ã µÃ ½Ã ½Ã ¾Ã' Ã'‚Ã'Å'Ã'Ž; КÐ ¾Ã ½Ã'‚Ã'€Ð °Ã ºÃ'‚ – Ð ´Ã ¾Ã ³Ã ¾Ã ²Ã ¾Ã'€; etc. 2. Loan-word can replace the Russian word: For example: Ð ¡Ã µÃ ºÃ ¾Ã ½Ã ´-Ã'…Ã' Ã ½Ã ´ – Ð ºÃ ¾Ã ¼Ã ¸Ã' Ã' Ã ¸Ã ¾Ã ½Ã ½Ã'‹Ð ¹ Ð ¼Ã °Ã ³Ã °Ã ·Ã ¸Ã ½; КÐ ¾Ã ¼Ã ¿Ã'Å'Ã'ŽÃ'‚Ð µÃ'€ – Ð ­Ãâ€™ÃÅ"; Ð ¨Ã ¾Ã'Æ' – Ð ¿Ã'€Ð µÃ ´Ã' Ã'‚Ð °Ã ²Ã »Ã µÃ ½Ã ¸Ã µ; etc. 3. Loan-word that has no equivalent in Russian language, new notions borrowed from another culture with the respective unit or concept: For example: Ð ¡Ã ¿Ã'€Ã' Ã ¹; ИÐ ½Ã ²Ã µÃ' Ã'‚Ð ¾Ã'€; Ð’Ð ¸Ã'€Ã'‚Ã'Æ'Ð °Ã »Ã'Å'Ð ½Ã'‹Ð ¹; ЛÃ' Ã ¿Ã'‚Ð ¾Ã ¿; ДÐ °Ã ¹Ã ´Ã ¶Ã µÃ' Ã'‚; etc. In some cases the application of foreign words is not appropriate, in others – it is necessary, as these words make up an essential part of lexis, fixed over the definite style. Types of borrowings It is possible to distinguish the following groups of loan-words: 1. Direct borrowings. The words are met in Russian in the same form and in the same meaning as in the initial language. They are: â€Å"Ã'Æ'Ð ¸Ã º-Ã' Ã ½Ã ´Ã¢â‚¬  – weekend, leisure time; â€Å"Ð ±Ã »Ã' Ã ºÃ¢â‚¬  – black(man) or Afro-American; â€Å"Ð ¼Ã °Ã ½Ã ¸Ã¢â‚¬  – money or cash. 2. Hybrids. These words were formed by addition of Russian suffixes, prefixes and endings to the foreign root. In this way the meaning of the word often changes. For example: â€Å"Ð ±Ã'Æ'Ð ·Ã ¸Ã'‚Ã'Å'† (busy – Ð ±Ã µÃ' Ã ¿Ã ¾Ã ºÃ ¾Ã ¹Ã ½Ã'‹Ð ¹, Ã' Ã'Æ'Ð µÃ'‚Ð »Ã ¸Ã ²Ã'‹Ð ¹), â€Å"Ð ·Ã °Ã ³Ã'Æ'Ð ³Ã »Ã ¸Ã'‚Ã'Å'†, â€Å"Ð »Ã °Ã ¹Ã ºÃ ½Ã'Æ'Ã'‚Ã'Å'†, â€Å"Ã'‚Ð ²Ã ¸Ã'‚Ð ½Ã'Æ'Ã'‚Ã'Å'† and others. 3. Calques. Word of foreign origin using with the preservation of its phonetic and graphic shape. They are: â€Å"Ð ºÃ ¾Ã  ´Ã¢â‚¬ , â€Å"Ð ²Ã ¸Ã'€Ã'Æ'Ã' Ã¢â‚¬ , â€Å"Ð ºÃ »Ã'Æ'Ð ±Ã¢â‚¬ , â€Å"Ð ´Ã ¸Ã' Ã ºÃ¢â‚¬ , â€Å"Ã' Ã »Ã µÃ ½Ã ³Ã¢â‚¬ , â€Å"Ð ±Ã °Ã ºÃ' Ã¢â‚¬ , â€Å"Ð ´Ã ¸-Ð ´Ã ¶Ã µÃ ¹Ã¢â‚¬  etc. 4. Half-calques. Words which after being grammatically assimilated were put under the grammatical rules of Russian language (suffixation). For example: â€Å"Ð ´Ã'€Ð °Ã ¹Ã ²Ã¢â‚¬  – â€Å"Ð ´Ã'€Ð °Ã ¹Ã ²Ã °Ã¢â‚¬  (drive) â€Å"Ð ´Ã °Ã ²Ã ½Ã ¾ Ð ½Ã µ Ð ±Ã'‹Ð »Ã ¾ Ã'‚Ð °Ã ºÃ ¾Ã ³Ã ¾ Ð ´Ã'€Ð °Ã ¹Ã ²Ã °Ã¢â‚¬  – Ð ² Ð ·Ã ½Ã °Ã'‡Ð µÃ ½Ã ¸Ã ¸ Ã' Ã ½Ã µÃ'€Ð ³Ã µÃ'‚Ð ¸Ã ºÃ °, Ð ºÃ'Æ'Ã'€Ð °Ã ¶. 5. Exotisms. Such words are characterized by specific national customs or manners of foreign nations and are used to show the atypical for Russian reality notions. The distinctive feature of them is that they have no equivalent or synonyms in Russian. For example: â€Å"Ã'‡Ð ¸Ã ¿Ã' Ã'‹â€  (chips), â€Å"Ã'…Ð ¾Ã'‚-Ð ´Ã ¾Ã ³Ã¢â‚¬  (hot-dog), â€Å"Ã'‡Ð ¸Ã ·Ã ±Ã'Æ'Ã'€Ð ³Ã µÃ'€â€  (cheeseburger). 6. Foreign lingual spots. Such words usually have lexical equivalents, but they stylistically differ from these equivalents and are used in the sphere of communication as expressive means to add a peculiar emotiveness to the speech. For example: â€Å"Ð ¾Ã¢â‚¬â„¢Ã ºÃ µÃ ¹Ã¢â‚¬  – OK; â€Å"Ð ²Ã °Ã'Æ'† – Wow. 7. Composites. Words which were made by means of two or more English lexical units. For example: â€Å"Ð ²Ã ¸Ã ´Ã µÃ ¾-Ã' Ã °Ã »Ã ¾Ã ½Ã¢â‚¬  –a special apartment for watching movies, â€Å"Ã' Ã µÃ ºÃ ¾ Ð ½Ã ´-Ã'…Ã' Ã ½Ã ´Ã¢â‚¬  – a shop that sells the goods which have already been used, â€Å"Ð »Ã °Ã'Æ'Ð ½Ã ¶-Ð ±Ã °Ã'€â€  – a comfortable cocktail bar. 8. Jargonisms. These are words appeared in consequence of some sounds distortion. For example: â€Å"Ð ¼Ã'‹Ð »Ã ¾Ã¢â‚¬  – e-mail, â€Å"Ð ºÃ'€Ð µÃ ·Ã °Ã ½Ã'Æ'Ã'‚Ã'‹Ð ¹, Ã'ˆÐ ¸Ã ·Ã °Ã ½Ã'Æ'Ã'‚Ã'‹Ð ¹Ã¢â‚¬  – crazy. If to speak about the time period there are two major types of borrowings. The first type is presented by old borrowings which were actualized during last years with respect to the political and economical systems modification. The second type includes the number of loan-words which were made directly during last years. IV Research part Nowadays the language that influences Russian the most is English. It is unsurprisingly because English has become an international language and is used all over the world. With the help of the Internet and the mass media the number of English slang words are increasing. More and more people, both youth and grown-ups, use these words in their speech. These words are used in all sorts of activities: politics, fashion, trade, medicine, law, military, mass media, sports. I have analyzed: 1. some TV programs; 2. some newspapers, magazines; 3. the names of the shops in Novogrudok and Minsk; to find out how deeply English borrowings have come into Russian. PART 1 English borrowings on TV The biggest part of borrowings comes from: * the names of some channels; * new kinds of programs invented in the USA and the UK; * new types of films; * sports programs; * music programs. The titles of some channels contain English letters or words. For example: EuroSport, National Geographic channel, Discovery Channel, Animal planet, Viasat History, Europe Plus, Kino club, EuroNews. A big part of entertaining programs were invented in the USA. That’s why the names of some types of programs are English. We can name capital show, talk show, reality show, paranormal show. Modern types of some films have come also from the US, because the motion picture arts were born there. It is a thriller, a detective, a western, a soap-opera, a love story, a sitcom, a fantasy, an action film. So many English words have entered the Russian speech from TV. A lot of English borrowings dedicated to different kinds of sports have come into Russian language. It is possible to explain it because many sports were originated in England. I will give for example channel TNT where some names of programs are English borrowings and it is brightly expressed. From TNT we know: Comedy club, Comedy woman, Cosmopolitan video version, Interns, Nasha Russia. In appendix I quoted words, that more often than others we can hear on TV. Youth commercial music and popular-entertaining channels are in the lead. So I can say that English words influence on teenagers and their speech is full of English words. PART 2 English borrowings in newspapers and magazines Lots of people read magazines and newspapers every day. And I have tried to indicate the most used magazines and have noticed that many of them have English names. In the Internet I have found information about the quantity of all the magazines and magazines with English names. I looked through all the magazines and chose only those which contained English names. In the Internet I have found information about the quantity of journals and magazines with English names of Belarusian publishing houses. I looked through all the magazines and chose only those which contained the English names. Even the articles in these journals contained different amounts of borrowings, all depended on the topic of the article and the magazine. â€Å"Cosmopolitan† is very popular with young people. Such Belarusian newspapers and magazines â€Å"Belarus Today†, â€Å"Pressbol†, â€Å"Personal computer†, â€Å"Press hit†, the magazine â€Å"Minsk review†, the magazi ne â€Å"Planet† are popular with people. PART 3 English borrowings in the names of the shops and some goods Borrowings have always come to the language through a variety of goods trade. And today, new products bring its contribution to linguistic borrowing. There are a lot of sources of borrowings. Among them I can name: * names of the stores; * names of cafes and restaurants; * product names; * household appliances. Every day people go shopping and find English words everywhere. Firstly, I would like to highlight the names of the stores in our town and our capital – Minsk, in the title of which there are some English words and letters: Axis, Respect (shoe stores), Berghouse, Tom Tailor, Delta sport, Sportmaster, Belmarket, Massive, Preston-market, Globo, Coolman, Maximus, Prostore and others. Every day people go shopping to buy different goods and the names of these items, written by a bright bold are well-remembered by consumers. We buy food every day and see the words Coca-Cola, Sprite, Bubble Gum, Chupa-chups, Ice-tea, Sandwich, Cracker, Alpine gold, Chips, Ð ¤Ã'€Ã'Æ'Ð ºÃ'‚ Ã'‚Ð °Ã ¹Ã ¼, Nuts, Snickers, Picnic, Mars, Bounty, Red Bull, beefsteak, grapefruit, Juice, Juicy fruit and others. We use different cleaning products, washing powders. The names of these products are also easily included in our language. Some words related to personal hygiene is also borrowed from the En glish language: Colgate, Fairy, Tide, Blend-a-med, Ariel, Mister Muskul, Clean, Vanish, Dove, Head and Shoulders, Cleaning, Mather care, and others. Food for pets also brings its contribution to the borrowing of words: Pedigree, Whiskas, Puppy, Parrot, Royal Canine and others. Household appliances and computer equipment have given us Cannon, Flash, Computer, Laptop, Notebook, iPhone, iPod, mp3Player, gadget, Smile, trader, level, IQ, chat, Sticker, names of kinds of music, Game, Player, Media, Mixer, Toaster, the names of many brands have become a part of our speech: Top shops, Top hits etc. Borrowings have come into fashion and become the names of cafes, clubs and restaurants: â€Å"Beatles†, â€Å"Blackberry†, â€Å"REST†, â€Å"Aero Cafe†, â€Å"Double Coffee†, â€Å"Chill Out†, â€Å"Quarter City†, â€Å"Birhause†, â€Å"Europe†, â€Å"Overtime†, â€Å"Madison Royal Club†, â€Å"West World Club†, â€Å"Next Club† and others. PART 4 The questionnaire We have asked the pupils of our school some questions on the topic English borrowings: 1. How often do you use English words in your speech (except English lessons)? 1. often 2. sometimes 3. do not use 2. Is it possible to speak without English borrowings? 1. yes 2. no 3. it’s difficult to answer 3. Does Russian need English borrowings? 1. yes 2. no 3. it’s difficult to answer Results of the questionnaire are presented in the appendix. Conclusion During the study of intercultural communication of Russian and English languages it became clear that the process of new words’ borrowing occur intensively enough. So the history of the country has a great influence upon the history of the language. All events in the history such as: wars, revolutions, trade, economical and political contacts, new inventions and many others always have a definite reflection in the lexical system of a language. As for nowadays a great interest of linguists is concentrated upon the Russian–English lingual communication. Increase of informational flow, appearance of Internet, expansion of international relationships, development of world trade, economy, informational technologies, participation in various international competitions, fashion shows and other things are the reasons that caused the new words entering into Russian lexis. The openness of our society leads us to a considerable enlargement of mental outlook and range of interests, and to the improvement of foreign languages knowledge. The number of new concepts and phenomena Russian in origin is very limited. That’s why the adoption of already existing nomination with the respective notion and item is considered to be the most prestigious and effective way of enlarging the vocabulary. We have seen that Russian language is not as systematic as English, or any other European languages, it is a still changing and flexible system. According to this research we can see that modern Russian language can be hardly imagined without English words. The main sources of English borrowings are: Mass media, TV, magazines and Stores. In this course project I have made the classification of loan-words which includes: direct borrowings, hybrids, calques, half-calques, exotisms, foreign lingual spots, composites and jargonisms. Besides there are some other classifications: according to the system-defined relations and according to the time period of borrowing the word. Time will show us if these borrowings can change, enrich or deteriorate the image of Russian language. Time will define the future destiny of each loan-word which is to be finally adopted or rejected by linguistic flavor of the epoch. Russian language has a long history of adopting words dictated by the necessity to perceive useful information in the form of new words drawing on international experience. However, national originality of Russian language did not suffer at all from the penetration of foreign words into it, as the process of borrowing is quite natural way of any language enrichment. Russian language preserved its self-dependency and just got rich by means of borrowed words. So on channels Sport and Belarus 2 we often hear such words as: Football/Match/Football boots, Surfing/Windsurfing, Bodybuilding, Power lifting, Basketball, Snowboard, Free ride, Backcountry, Kickboxing/Mix fight. There are a lot of other kinds of sport: volleyball, tennis, auto sport, motorsport, baseball, skateboarding, Aerobic, Gymnastic, Break dance, arm sport, badminton, bobsleigh, bowling, darts, golf, curling, paintball, Rafting, squash, hockey, cheerleading and so on. There are uncountable quantity of English words that we hear on TV. I want to repeat just few of them which I often hear: TV, show, teenager, model, musical, show business, celebrity, style, fashion, trend, top, super, weekend, test-drive, up-grade, jazz, hip-hop, rap, pop, rock-and-roll, cover, PR-manager, image-maker, battle, freestyle, casting, comment, Hollywood, designer, track, boyfriend, price-list, exclusive. Some of the Belarus periodicals: Automobile news. The Internet newspaper â€Å"BSB NEWS† Economic reviews, exchange rates, news, comments, bank services, events, reportings, author’s materials. The newspaper â€Å"Autodigest† Automobile weekly journal www. The newspaper â€Å"Belarus Today† The electronic version of the newspaper. The newspaper â€Å"Pressbol† News of the Belarus sports, interview, comments, statistics. www. PBby The newspaper â€Å"Personal computer† The news Internet, iron reviews, useful programs, councils skilled, humour and still is a lot of interesting. www. The newspaper â€Å"Press hit† Weekly the most interesting and actual articles from more than 100 newspapers of the world. Magazine  «MINSK REVIEW » Reference magazine Magazine â€Å"Business† Monthly business magazine. To PART 4: Results of the questionnaire. List of literature: 1. БÃ'€Ð µÃ ¹Ã'‚Ð µÃ'€ ÐÅ". Ð .  «Ã Ã ½Ã ³Ã »Ã ¸Ã'†Ð ¸Ã ·Ã ¼Ã'‹ Ð ² Ã'€Ã'Æ'Ã' Ã' Ã ºÃ ¾Ã ¼ Ã' Ã ·Ã'‹Ð ºÃ µ: Ð ¸Ã' Ã'‚Ð ¾Ã'€Ð ¸Ã'  Ð ¸ Ð ¿Ã µÃ'€Ã' Ã ¿Ã µÃ ºÃ'‚Ð ¸Ã ²Ã'‹Â », Ð’Ð »Ã °Ã ´Ã ¸Ã ²Ã ¾Ã' Ã'‚Ð ¾Ã º: Ð ¸Ã ·Ã ´Ã °Ã'‚Ð µÃ »Ã'Å'Ã' Ã'‚Ð ²Ã ¾  «Ãâ€Ã ¸Ã °Ã »Ã ¾Ã ³Ã‚ », 1995. 2. ГÃ'Æ'Ã'€Ã'Å'Ð µÃ ²Ã ° Ð ¢.Ð . Ð ¡Ã »Ã ¾Ã ²Ã °Ã'€Ã'Å' Ð ¸Ã ½Ã ¾Ã' Ã'‚Ã'€Ð °Ã ½Ã ½Ã'‹Ã'… Ã' Ã »Ã ¾Ã ². – ÐÅ": ООО Â «ÃÅ"Ð ¸Ã'€ Ð ºÃ ½Ã ¸Ã ³Ã ¸Ã‚ », 2003. 3. ДÃ'Å'Ã' Ã ºÃ ¾Ã ² Ð . И.  «ÃÅ¸Ã'€Ð ¸Ã'‡Ð ¸Ã ½Ã'‹ Ð ¸Ã ½Ã'‚Ð µÃ ½Ã' Ã ¸Ã ²Ã ½Ã ¾Ã ³Ã ¾ Ð ·Ã °Ã ¸Ã ¼Ã' Ã'‚Ð ²Ã ¾Ã ²Ã °Ã ½Ã ¸Ã'  Ð °Ã ½Ã ³Ã »Ã ¸Ã'†Ð ¸Ã ·Ã ¼Ã ¾Ã ² Ð ² Ã' Ã ¾Ã ²Ã'€Ð µÃ ¼Ã µÃ ½Ã ½Ã ¾Ã ¼ Ã'€Ã'Æ'Ã' Ã' Ã ºÃ ¾Ã ¼ Ã' Ã ·Ã'‹Ð ºÃ µÃ‚ », Ð Ã ¾Ã ²Ã ¾Ã' Ã ¸Ã ±Ã ¸Ã'€Ã' Ã º, Ð ¸Ã ·Ã ´Ã °Ã'‚Ð µÃ »Ã'Å'Ã' Ã'‚Ð ²Ã ¾  «Ã ¯Ã ·Ã'‹Ð º Ð ¸ Ð ºÃ'Æ'Ð »Ã'Å'Ã'‚Ã'Æ'Ã'€Ð °Ã‚ », 2003. 4. Ðâ€"Ã'Æ'Ã'€Ð °Ã ²Ã »Ã µÃ ² Ð .Ð ¤. ИÐ ½Ã ¾Ã' Ã ·Ã'‹Ã'‡Ð ½Ã ¾Ã µ Ð ·Ã °Ã ¸Ã ¼Ã' Ã'‚Ð ²Ã ¾Ã ²Ã °Ã ½Ã ¸Ã µ Ð ² Ã'€Ã'Æ'Ã' Ã' Ã ºÃ ¾Ã ¼ Ð ¿Ã'€Ð ¾Ã' Ã'‚Ð ¾Ã'€Ð µÃ'‡Ð ¸Ã ¸ (Ã'„Ð ¾Ã ½Ã µÃ'‚Ð ¸Ã ºÃ °, Ð ¼Ã ¾Ã'€Ã'„Ð ¾Ã »Ã ¾Ã ³Ã ¸Ã' , Ð »Ã µÃ ºÃ' Ã ¸Ã'‡Ð µÃ' Ã ºÃ °Ã'  Ã' Ã µÃ ¼Ã °Ã ½Ã'‚Ð ¸Ã ºÃ °) // ГÐ ¾Ã'€Ð ¾Ã ´Ã' Ã ºÃ ¾Ã µ Ð ¿Ã'€Ð ¾Ã' Ã'‚Ð ¾Ã'€Ð µÃ'‡Ð ¸Ã µ. ÐÅ"., 1984 5. КÐ ¾Ã ¶Ã µÃ ²Ã ½Ã ¸Ã ºÃ ¾Ã ²Ã ° Ð’. П., Ð Ã ¸Ã ºÃ ¾Ã »Ã °Ã µÃ ²Ã ° П. Ð .  «Ãâ€ºÃ ¸Ã'‚Ð µÃ'€Ð °Ã'‚Ã'Æ'Ã'€Ð ½Ã'‹Ð ¹ Ã' Ã ½Ã'†Ð ¸Ã ºÃ »Ã ¾Ã ¿Ã µÃ ´Ã ¸Ã'‡Ð µÃ' Ã ºÃ ¸Ã ¹ Ã' Ã »Ã ¾Ã ²Ã °Ã'€Ã'Å' », ÐÅ"Ð ¾Ã' Ã ºÃ ²Ã °, Ð ¸Ã ·Ã ´Ã °Ã'‚Ð µÃ »Ã'Å'Ã' Ã'‚Ð ²Ã ¾  «Ã ¡Ã ¾Ã ²Ã µÃ'‚Ã' Ã ºÃ  °Ã'  Ã' Ã ½Ã'†Ð ¸Ã ºÃ »Ã ¾Ã ¿Ã µÃ ´Ã ¸Ã' Ã‚ », 1987. 6. КÃ'€Ã'‹Ã' Ã ¸Ã ½ Л. П.  «ÃËœÃ ½Ã ¾Ã' Ã ·Ã'‹Ã'‡Ð ½Ã'‹Ð µ Ã' Ã »Ã ¾Ã ²Ã ° Ð ² Ã' Ã ¾Ã ²Ã'€Ð µÃ ¼Ã µÃ ½Ã ½Ã ¾Ã ¹ Ð ¶Ã ¸Ã ·Ã ½Ã ¸. Ð  Ã'Æ'Ã' Ã' Ã ºÃ ¸Ã ¹ Ã' Ã ·Ã'‹Ð º Ð ºÃ ¾Ã ½Ã'†Ð ° XX Ã' Ã'‚Ð ¾Ã »Ã µÃ'‚Ð ¸Ã' Ã‚ », ÐÅ"Ð ¾Ã' Ã ºÃ ²Ã °, 1996. 7. Ð ­Ã »Ã µÃ ºÃ'‚Ã'€Ð ¾Ã ½Ã ½Ã'‹Ð ¹ Ã' Ã »Ã ¾Ã ²Ã °Ã'€Ã'Å'  «ABBYY Lingvo 11 » Ã'ˆÐ µÃ' Ã'‚Ã'Å' Ã' Ã ·Ã'‹Ð ºÃ ¾Ã ², 2005. 8. 9. 10. 11.

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