Thursday, October 10, 2019

Mahayana Buddhism

Asian Behavior and Thought 10/16/12 Study Guide 7 – Mahayana Buddhism 1. What are the four sublime states? 1. Boundless love is related to friendliness. Buddhists cultivate love that is unconditioned and unlimited, based on the knowledge that all are one in the ocean of love. 2. Boundless compassion is the intense fellow feeling one should have for all living beings who suffer through pain, anxiety, ignorance and illusion. 3. Sympathetic joy- moves one to seek out happiness and prosperity of others and rejoice with them. . Equanimity – is the sense of nonattachment to self and to the world that the arhat achives by following the path of transformation and rooting out all desire and clinging. 2. What is Early Buddhism’s view of material well-being? Buddhist vision for society is the fundamental principle that all types of people are equal and that honor depends not on circumstances of birth but on moral and spiritual achievement?. ( is this the answer) 3. How does the ethical life of lay persons compare with that of monks and nuns?Lay people – There are many scriptures that spell out practical guidance and concrete disciplines for the good life. There are five percepts that leads the good life of compassion, love and fulfillment. 1st percept is the principle of nonviolence – concept expands not only to humans but also to animals. 2nd percept is not to steal – concept expands to avoild all forms of cheating, dishonest dealings to gain advantage over the others etc. 3rd percept is refrain from wrongful sexual relation – concept expands to be married and have sexual intercourse in the right way. th percept is refrain from wrongful speech that would cause others hatred, enmity, & dishmarmony. And 5th percept is refrain from drugs and liquor because it can cause breaking of other percepts. Monks and nuns – has to follow high level of detachment from those material, economic and social attachments that characteri ze life for lay people. They have 10 percepts. 1. Taking life, 2. Not stealing. 3. Sexual misconduct 4. Lying. 4. Drugs and liquor 5. Drugs and liquor 6. Earing after noon 7. Watching shows, singing and dancing 8. Using adornments of perfumes etc. 9.Sleeping in a high bed and 10. Handling gold or silver. 4. Outline an overview of the general spread of Buddhism through Asia. Theravada (ways of elders) came to be dominant in South Asia and South east Asia (especially in Srilanka). Mahayana (greater vehicle – one reaching the goal was being broadened to include others, even lay people) Buddhisim spreaded throughout the lands of East Asia ( monks and missionaries brought Buddhism to China than from China it spreaded to Vietnam, Korea and Japan). Vahrayana (diamond vehicle or tantrism) was accepted in Tibet and 1 Japanese Buddhist school. 5.How is Mahayana Buddhism distinguished from Early Buddhism. Mahayana discarded the narrower concept of the arhat as the one reaching the goal was being broadened to include others even laypeople. Al can be equally on the path toward achieveing Buddhahood While Theravada(early Buddhism) only focused on original teachings of the Buddha. 6. In Mahayana Buddhism what is a bodhisattva? Bodhisattva- being who is intent on becoming fully enlightened in Mahayana Buddhism, one who reaches enlightenment but vows to continvue rebirths in samsara to assist others. 7. How does the conception of Buddha change?The Mahayana group expanded the conception of who or what the Buddha is. They emphasized that Buddha is really the eternal power of the Dharma and that this Dharma body of Buddha is universal. Dharma body is the only real body of Buddha and it is ultimate reality. 8. What is the relation of nirvana to samsara? Nirvana is freedom from samsara and therefore, is a permanent, unconditioned state. Nirvana is not in any sense like God but Nirvana is a reality experienced within as it were a state of unconditioned freedom. 9What are the meaning of emptiness (shunyata) and â€Å"suchness† (tathata)?Emptiness is actually the common predicate of all dharmas. Emptiness means the absence of own being, where own being means something existing through its own power and having an immutable essence. So emptiness is really the same as the truth of dependent co-arising. Mahaynnists point out that not only are all conditioned dharmas empty but also the unconditioned reality of nirvana is empty. This leads to the idea that both Nirvana and samsara is empty there is no difference btw them. Suchness is seeing the world as it really is. Karuna – Buddhist ideal of compassionPure Land – focusing on worship of AMitabha Budhha, with hope of reincarnation pureland paradise. Amitabha – heavenly Buddha who presides over the pure land Buddha realm Chan – school of meditation Buddhism in China, Korea. Zen – important school of meditation Buddhism in japan Lotus Sutra – imp. Early scriptures ofMahayana Buddhism. Vajrajana – Damond Vehicle, tantric tradition of Buddhism especially in Tibet and Japan. Mandala – painting of cosmic Buddhas or a symbolice cosmos, used especially in Vajrayana Buddhist ritual and meditation. Dharma – teachings of budhha ependent co-arising (dependent origination) – central Buddhist teaching that everything is conditioned by something else, that all reality is interdependent. Three Bodies (Trikaya) – Dharma body – universal Buddha essence. Bliss Body – heavenly Buddhas and Transformation body – human manifestations of Buddha. Mahavairocana – great sun Buddha IITuesday, October 23. Tibetan Buddhism. In class video: The Reincarnation of Khensur Rinpoche Read: Ch. 6: pp. 103, 106-108. Iyer Pico on the Dalai Lama (on Blackboard). [2nd ed. Ch. 6: 95, 98-100] 1. What are some of the special characteristics of Tibetan Buddhism?The religious specialists were the lamas. Tantric Buddhists act ively engage with their feelings, emotions and imagination. For example, during meditation they will imagine what it was like to be the Buddha in a certain place or time. 2. Based on Pico Iyer’s presentation, how would you describe the Dalai Lama? 3. What stands out most to you personally in Iyer’s presentation? Why? Lama – spiritual masters often thought to be living gods Dalai Lama – head of the Geluk Tibetain Buddhist school, traditionally recognized as spiritual and political leader of Tibetans.

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