Saturday, August 17, 2019
Animal Farm. Analysis
Clover is 14 years old, with the same old Benjamin. The windmill is used for milling corn. All animals continue lives of hard work and little food Ã¢â¬â except the pigs. The pigs begin to walk on hind legs, carrying a whip, and eventually wearing clothes. The sheep begin to bleat Ã¢â¬Å"Four legs good, two legs better! Ã¢â¬ The wall has been repainted to Ã¢â¬Å"ALL ANIMALS ARE EQUAL / BUT SOME ANIMALS ARE MORE EQUAL THAN OTHERS. Ã¢â¬ Later, the neighboring farmers are given a tour, and stayed for dinner. Mr. Pilkington makes a toast to Animal Farm and its efficiency.Napoleon outlined new policies, with use of comrade suppressed, cancellation of meetings, burial of Old MajorÃ¢â¬â¢s skull and removal of farm flag designs as well as the use of the name Manor Farm. Then, the men and pigs begin playing cards. It was impossible to discriminate between the humans and the pigs. Analysis This final chapter depicts the complete transformation of Animal Farm into Manor Farm. The comp letion of the windmill marks a linking of animals and humans, its symbolic meaning was reversed and corrupted as it was used for money just like everything else.The farm is inexorably tied to human in term of commerce, such that the pigs come to resemble the human oppressors to the degree that Ã¢â¬Å"it was impossible to say which was which. Ã¢â¬ Orwell used Ã¢â¬Å"years passÃ¢â¬ to stress that the animals' lacks sense of history causing the incapability of judging present situation, thus do not complain their awful lives, since Ã¢â¬Å"they had nothing to go upon except Squealer's lists of figures, which invariably demonstrate that everything was getting better and better. Ã¢â¬ The animals cannot recall the different from the present life and the past, therefore they could not compare.The pigs have won their ideological battle, as the Party wins its war with Winston's mind at the end of Nineteen-Eight-Four. Only Benjamin by which Orwell use to voice his own opinion is able to conclude that Ã¢â¬Å"hunger, hardship, and disappointmentÃ¢â¬ are the Ã¢â¬Å"unalterable law of life. Ã¢â¬ Napoleon is carrying a whip in his trotter, formerly a symbol of human torture. The sheep's new slogan, destroys chance for thought and debate, and the new Commandment expresses Napoleon's philosophy. When the humans arrives, the animals are not sure whom they should fear, the pigs or the men.It is implied that there is no real difference, as it does with the pigs buying a wireless, a telephone, and newspapers, and with Napoleon smoking a pipe, despite Old Major's admonition to avoid all habits of men. The meeting between the pigs and the humans is an allusion to the Tehran Conference, which was intended to map out a strategy to end World War II. It was a meeting of the leaders, jointly leading the fight against Hitler. Pilkington's address to Napoleon reveals his desire to remain on good terms with Animal Farm and offers a stream of empty words to keep the wheels of c ommerce well-greased.He praises Napoleon for making the animals do more work for less food, suggest that Napoleon is corrupt. His final witticism Ã¢â¬Å"If you have your lower animals to contend with Ã¢â¬ ¦ we have our lower classes! Ã¢â¬ stresses the political interchangeability between the pigs and the men. The changes of which Napoleon speak make the farm a complete dictatorship. The abolition of the word Ã¢â¬Å"comradeÃ¢â¬ create less unity among the animal, the removal of the horn and hoof ensure that the animals never consider the rewards of struggle and rebellion. Finally, the changing of the farm's name implies that the farm is not, the animals'.Instead, it is the property of Ã¢â¬Å"to the manor bornÃ¢â¬ , the pigs. When Napoleon and Pilkington argue, it shows that after years of oppression, struggle, rebellion, and reform, the pigs become as corrupt and cruel as their masters. Smoking, drinking, whipping, killing, and even cheating which are shared by both animal a nd man. Despite Pilkington's professed admiration for Napoleon, neither trusts the other because each is motivated purely by self-interest and not the ineffectual principles expounded by old Major. Summary analyze theme Years go by. Only Clover, Benjamin, and some of the pigs remember the revolution.Animal Farm is more prosperous than ever. The windmill is finished, though instead of producing electricity itÃ¢â¬â¢s used to mill flour, and brings in a hefty profit. Although the farm is richer, only the pigs and dogs seem better off. Still, the animals canÃ¢â¬â¢t remember any other way of life, and even those that donÃ¢â¬â¢t remember the revolution are proud to be free. The pigs rule Animal Farm as masters, just as Mr. Jones once did. However, they control language and thought on their farm so completely that their animals still consider themselves free citizens. Totalitarianism, Language as PowerOne day Squealer brings the sheep out to a distant field with him and keeps them th ere for a week. Just after the sheep return, Clover lets out a terrified neigh: Squealer is walking on two legs! All the pigs then walk out of the farmhouse on two legs. Napoleon appears last, carrying a whip. The pigsÃ¢â¬â¢ power is so complete that they now feel free to act exactly like humans. NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s whip is a symbol of oppression. Totalitarianism, Revolution and Corruption, Class Warfare The animals are silent and seem poised to protest. Just then the sheep begin to bleat Ã¢â¬Å"Four legs good, two legs better! over and over, and the prospect of protest passes. Once again the animals donÃ¢â¬â¢t take their chance to rebel. The pigÃ¢â¬â¢s propaganda overpowers them. Totalitarianism, Class Warfare,Language as Power Clover asks Benjamin to read the Seven Commandments to her. But the wall now only reads, Ã¢â¬Å"All Animals Are Equal. But Some Are More Equal Than Others. Ã¢â¬ Animalism has been entirely rewritten to benefit the pigs. It now reads like nonsense. Tot alitarianism, Revolution and Corruption, ,Language as Power The next day, all the pigs start carrying whips and wearing clothes.A week later, they invite humans from nearby farms to look around and stay for dinner at Animal Farm. That night, the animals, led by Clover, sneak up and watch the pigs and humans through the window. Pilkington and Napoleon toast each other. Pilkington says heÃ¢â¬â¢s pleased to have their history of mistrust behind them. He expresses admiration that the pigs can feed their animals so little yet get so much work out of them. He adds that pigs and men have similar problems: pigs have lower animals to deal with, while men have lower classes.The pigs, who once wanted to kill all humans, now seek friendly relations with nearby farmers. Animal Farm suggests that all totalitarian governments are fundamentally the same because their leaders share one goal: to maintain their own power by oppressing and exploiting individuals in particular and the lower classes in general. Totalitarianism, Revolution and Corruption, Class Warfare Napoleon agrees wholeheartedly with Pilkington, and announces plans to eliminate all signs of Animal FarmÃ¢â¬â¢s revolutionary past, including its name. From now on it will be called by its original and proper name: Manor Farm.The similarity of all totalitarian governments is represented by the changing of the farmÃ¢â¬â¢s name back to its original name. Totalitarianism, Language as Power The men and pigs return to a game of poker and the farm animals turn to leave, but a shout from within stops them. Napoleon and Pilkington have discovered each other cheating at cards. A fight has broken out. In the chaos, the animals canÃ¢â¬â¢t tell the pigs from the humans. In their petty greed, the Animalist and Capitalist leaders are indistinguishable. The animals are back where they started: enslaved by oppressive leaders. Totalitarianism, Revolution and Corruption, Class WarfareThemes Totalitarianism Totalitarianism is a form of government that seeks to control every facet of life, from economics and politics to individualÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas and beliefs. For instance, Mr. Jones runs Manor Farm based on the idea that human domination is the natural order of things, while Napoleon and the pigs run Animal Farm with the claim that they are fighting for animals against evil humans. Every type of totalitarianism, is founded on oppression the individual and the lower class. Those who hold power in totalitarian regimes care only care about maintaining their power by any means necessary.While the story of NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s rise to power is most explicitly a condemnation of totalitarianism in the Soviet Union, Orwell intends Animal Farm to criticize all totalitarian regimes. Revolution and Corruption Animal Farm depicts a revolution in progress. Old Major gives the animals a new perspective on their situation under Mr. Jones, which leads them to envision a better future free of human exploitation. The revolution in Animal Farm, like all popular revolutions, arises out of a hope for a better future. At the time of the revolution, even the pigs are excited by and ommitted to the idea of universal animal equality. So what undermines the animalÃ¢â¬â¢s revolution and transforms it into a totalitarian nightmare? Animal Farm shows how the high ideals that fuel revolutions gradually give way to individual and class self-interest. Not even Napoleon planned to become a dictator before the revolution, but as his power grew, he took more and more until his power became absolute. Revolutions are corrupted in a slow process. Animal Farm portrays that process. Class Warfare One of the main tenets of Animalism is that all animals are equal.But quite quickly the pigs begin to refer to themselves as Ã¢â¬Å"mindworkersÃ¢â¬ to distinguish themselves from the other animals, who are physical laborers. Over time, this sense of separation takes hold: the pigs begin to discourage their children from playing w ith the children of the other animals, and then establish themselves as absolute rulers of the Ã¢â¬Å"lesserÃ¢â¬ menial laborers. Animal Farm shows how differences in education and occupation lead to the development of class, which leads inevitably to class warfare, in which one class seeks to dominate the other.Animal Farm suggests that the Ã¢â¬Å"mindworkingÃ¢â¬ class will almost always prevail in this struggle. Animal Farm doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t just focus on the upper classes, however. In fact, it focuses more closely on the oppressed working class. The farm animals work so hard that they have no time to learn or educate themselves or think deeply about their world. Instead, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re taught that work is their contribution to society, their way to freedom. Boxer believes that Ã¢â¬Å"I will work harderÃ¢â¬ is the answer to every problem, though he never perceives that the pigs exploit his effort.Benjamin occupies the other extreme: he recognizes whatÃ¢â¬â¢s going on, but his cynicism stops him from taking action against the pigs. In the end, Animal Farm implies that whether because of ignorance, inaction, or fear, the working class allows itself to be dominated by the Ã¢â¬Å"mindworkers. Ã¢â¬ Language as Power Animal Farm shows how the minority in power uses vague language, propaganda, and misinformation to control the thoughts and beliefs of the majority in the lower classes. The pigs, especially Squealer, become extremely sophisticated and effective in their attempts to rewrite the rules of Animal Farm and Animalism.They even revise the farmÃ¢â¬â¢s entire history in order to mislead the other animals into believing exactly what they say. By the end of the novel, the animals on the farm believe Snowball fought against them at the Battle of the Cowshed even though they saw him fight with them. They believe life on the farm has improved even though they have less food than ever, and that Napoleon has their best interests at heart even though he kills those who disagree with him. As the only literate animals on the farm, the pigs maintain a monopoly on information that they use to build and hold their power. The Soviet UnionWhile Animal Farm condemns all forms of totalitarianism, it is most explicitly a bitter attack on the Soviet Union. Though Orwell supported the ideas of Socialism, he strongly opposed the Soviet UnionÃ¢â¬â¢s descent into totalitarianism under Stalin. Animal Farm satirically attacks the Soviet Union by mirroring many events from Soviet history in the novel. The events of Animal Farm that mirror historical events in the Soviet Union, such as the revolution and the subsequent corruption of its ideals, will be highlighted and discussed in the Summary and Analysis sections. What unites the animals into a community?Pride Chapter 10 Quotes Somehow it seemed as though the farm had grown richer without making the animals themselves any richerÃ¢â¬â except, of course, for the pigs and the dogs. Four legs good, two legs better! All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others. The creatures outside looked from pig to man, and from man to pig, and from pig to man again; but already it was impossible to say which was which. Ã¢â¬ Quote #1 Pride QuotesThere was enthusiastic cheering and stamping of feet. Napoleon was so gratified that he left his place and came round the table to clink his mug against Mr.Pilkington's before emptying it. (10. 28)| While the pigsÃ¢â¬â¢ pride initially lay in besting the humans, Napoleon ultimately takes pride in gaining the approval of the humans with whom he once competed. Quote #2 Pride QuoteIt might be that their lives were hard and that not all of their hopes had been fulfilled; but they were conscious that they were not as other animals. If they went hungry, it was not from feeding tyrannical human beings; if they worked hard, at least they worked for themselves. No creature among them went upon two legs. No creature called any other creature Ã¢â¬Å"Master. Ã¢â¬ All animals were equal. (10. )| The animalsÃ¢â¬â¢ pride lies in their distinction from others of their species. The principles of Animalism trick them into thinking theirs is the superior situation. Quote #3 Cunning and Cleverness QuotesSometimes the older ones among them racked their dim memories and tried to determine whether in the early days of the Rebellion, when Jones's expulsion was still recent, things had been better or worse than now. They could not remember. There was nothing with which they could compare their present lives: they had nothing to go upon except Squealer's lists of figures, which invariably demonstrated that everything was getting better and better.The animals found the problem insoluble; in any case, they had little time for speculating on such things now. (10. 6)| Squealer conceals actual knowledge from the other animals by stuffing their heads full of false information Ã¢â¬â frivolous numbers and figures. Quote #4 Dr eams, Hopes, and Plans QuotesYears passed. The seasons came and went, the short animal lives fled by. A time came when there was no one who remembered the old days before the Rebellion, except Clover, Benjamin, Moses the raven, and a number of the pigs. (10. 1)| Despite visions of a better future, the years progress with little or no change.Quote #5 Dreams, Hopes, and Plans QuotesOnly old Benjamin professed to remember every detail of his long life and to know that things never had been, nor ever could be much better or much worse-hunger, hardship, and disappointment being, so he said, the unalterable law of life. (10. 6)| BenjaminÃ¢â¬â¢s clear vision of the future is the product of his unadulterated memory of the past. Quote #6 Dreams, Hopes, and Plans QuotesÃ¢â¬ Gentlemen,Ã¢â¬ concluded Napoleon, Ã¢â¬Å"I will give you the same toast as before, but in a different form. Fill your glasses to the brim. Gentlemen, here is my toast: To the prosperity of The Manor Farm! (10. 32)| The inevitability of Animal FarmÃ¢â¬â¢s reversion to its original state of corrupt leadership is made clear by the reversion of its name back to Ã¢â¬Å"Manor Farm. Ã¢â¬ Quote #7 Rules and Order QuotesÃ¢â¬ My sight is failing,Ã¢â¬ she said finally. Ã¢â¬Å"Even when I was young I could not have read what was written there. But it appears to me that that wall looks different. Are the Seven Commandments the same as they used to be, Benjamin? Ã¢â¬ For once Benjamin consented to break his rule, and he read out to her what was written on the wall. There was nothing there now except a single Commandment.It ran: ALL ANIMALS ARE EQUAL BUT SOME ANIMALS ARE MORE EQUAL THAN OTHERS (10. 17, 10. 18, 10. 19)| Benjamin breaks his own rule to read aloud the Commandments, which reveal violations of the Commandments themselves. All order is falling apart. Quote #8 Rules and Order QuotesHe did not believe, he said, that any of the old suspicions still lingered, but certain changes had been made recently in the routine of the farm which should have the effect of promoting confidence stiff further. Hitherto the animals on the farm had had a rather foolish custom of addressing one another as Ã¢â¬Å"Comrade. This was to be suppressed. There had also been a very strange custom, whose origin was unknown, of marching every Sunday morning past a boar's skull which was nailed to a post in the garden. This, too, would be suppressed, and the skull had already been buried. His visitors might have observed, too, the green flag which flew from the masthead. If so, they would perhaps have noted that the white hoof and horn with which it had previously been marked had now been removed. It would be a plain green flag from now onwards. (10. 30)| The creation of new traditions is accompanied by the destruction of the old.Quote #9 Rules and Order QuotesHe had only one criticism, he said, to make of Mr. Pilkington's excellent and neighbourly speech. Mr. Pilkington had referred throughout to Ã¢â¬Å"Animal Farm. Ã¢â¬ He could not of course know-for he, Napoleon, was only now for the first time announcing it-that the name Ã¢â¬Å"Animal FarmÃ¢â¬ had been abolished. Henceforward the farm was to be known as Ã¢â¬Å"The Manor FarmÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â which, he believed, was its correct and original name. (10. 31)| Orwell presents the name of the farm as the last tradition to go Ã¢â¬â the abandonment of Ã¢â¬Å"Animal FarmÃ¢â¬ is the culmination of all the other violations on the part of the pigs.Quote #10 Lies and Deceit QuotesLike all of Napoleon's speeches, it was short and to the point. He too, he said, was happy that the period of misunderstanding was at an end. For a long time there had been rumours-circulated, he had reason to think, by some malignant enemy-that there was something subversive and even revolutionary in the outlook of himself and his colleagues. They had been credited with attempting to stir up rebellion among the animals on neighbouring farms. Nothing could be further from the truth! Their sole wish, now and in the past, was to live at peace and in normal business relations with their neighbours.This farm which he had the honour to control, he added, was a co-operative enterprise. The title-deeds, which were in his own possession, were owned by the pigs jointly. (10. 29)| Napoleon attempts to change and re-shape history in the minds of the humans exactly as the pigs have done with the animals on the farm. Quote #11 Lies and Deceit QuotesBut they had not gone twenty yards when they stopped short. An uproar of voices was coming from the farmhouse. They rushed back and looked through the window again. Yes, a violent quarrel was in progress. There were shoutings, bangings on the table, sharp suspicious glances, furious denials.The source of the trouble appeared to be that Napoleon and Mr. Pilkington had each played an ace of spades simultaneously. (10. 34)| Napoleon and the humans are made similar in their deceptions; while w e can not tell who played the false ace of spades, we can conclude, just as Clover, that there is ultimately no difference either way. Quote #12 Control over the Intellectually Inferior QuotesOne day in early summer Squealer ordered the sheep to follow him, and led them out to a piece of waste ground at the other end of the farm, which had become overgrown with birch saplings.The sheep spent the whole day there browsing at the leaves under Squealer's supervision. In the evening he returned to the farmhouse himself, but, as it was warm weather, told the sheep to stay where they were. It ended by their remaining there for a whole week, during which time the other animals saw nothing of them. Squealer was with them for the greater part of every day. He was, he said, teaching them to sing a new song, for which privacy was needed. (10. 8)| Squealer separates the sheep from the other animals to use them as tools, just as Napoleon separated the pups when they were born.Quote #13 Control ov er the Intellectually Inferior QuotesBut just at that moment, as though at a signal, all the sheep burst out into a tremendous bleating of- Ã¢â¬Å"Four legs good, two legs better! Four legs good, two legs better! Four legs good, two legs better! Ã¢â¬ It went on for five minutes without stopping. And by the time the sheep had quieted down, the chance to utter any protest had passed, for the pigs had marched back into the farmhouse. (10. 13, 10. 14, 10. 15)| The pigs are able to reverse the idea of the saying Ã¢â¬Å"four legs good, two legs badÃ¢â¬ by changing one simple word.Similarly, by making seemingly small changes to their stories and explanations, the pigs are able to control the minds of the rest of Animal Farm as well. Quote #14 Leadership and Corruption QuotesBut the luxuries of which Snowball had once taught the animals to dream, the stalls with electric light and hot and cold water, and the three-day week, were no longer talked about. Napoleon had denounced such idea s as contrary to the spirit of Animalism. The truest happiness, he said, lay in working hard and living frugally. (10. )| Napoleon uses the concept of Animalism to disguise his manipulations, but notice that he simultaneously denies all the initial dreams that went along with the concept of Animalism. Quote #15 Leadership and Corruption QuotesToday he and his friends had visited Animal Farm and inspected every inch of it with their own eyes, and what did they find? Not only the most up-to-date methods, but a discipline and an orderliness which should be an example to all farmers everywhere. He believed that he was right in saying that the lower animals on Animal Farm did more work and received less food than any animals in the county. 10. 25)| The humans and pigs measure power by its ability to oppress. Quote #16 Leadership and Corruption QuotesTwelve voices were shouting in anger, and they were all alike. No question, now, what had happened to the faces of the pigs. The creatures o utside looked from pig to man, and from man to pig, and from pig to man again; but already it was impossible to say which was which. (10. 35)| While the pigs change in many ways, it is not moving into the house, or wearing clothes, or walking on two legs that makes them like the humans Ã¢â¬â it is the abuse of their power.